|The Pharisee and the Publican (5th/6th century),|
Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna.
James F. McCue, "Double justification at the Council of Trent: piety and theology in sixteenth-century Roman Catholicism," in Piety, politics, and ethics: Reformation studies in honor of George Wolfgang Forell, Sixteenth century essays and studies, ed. Carter Lindberg (Kirksville, MO: Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers, 1984), 52 and 52n21 (39-53), on the speech of Gregory of Padua at Trent: "As a matter of fact, several of the participants at Trent seem to have been willing to serve as the minor for Gregory's syllogism, but most of the opposition ignored the reference to practice and to liturgy and focused instead on the theoretical ramifications and inadequacies of the doctrine of double justification" (52-53). "the minor for Gregory's syllogism"? Here's Gregory of Padua, speaking at Trent in 1546:
One who has been justified by God's mercy through Jesus Christ, if he or she does good works relying on these same helps, fulfills the law, and perseveres—such a one is indeed just and merits heaven itself, blessedness, and God. But there is a problem in finding a minor for our syllogism: how shall we find someone who will say 'I am that one; ergo by right heaven is owed me.' Who, speaking about himself, will provide the minor and say 'I am the very one?' Who knows that he or she has done all that God has commanded, even down to circumstantial detail (cum debitis circumstantiis)[?] Who is sure of his or her own works when everyone agrees that the justified do not know (regularly; there may be exceptions) that they are in grace[?] Who will say, 'All that you have commanded Lord I have done from my youth, what more is wanting to me?' This judgment, esteemed Fathers, is difficult and is not to be sought from us, who fall daily. It is to be sought from the saints. But I do not think that any of them, if they came back to us, would say: 'I'll provide the minor; I am that just one!' And I accept all the testimonies of the saints adduced to this effect (and I do not think that they were deceived, Fathers—nec decepi credo Patres) in which they accused themselves and said that they were unclean and unjust [(CT V, 580, 1-15)].