Monday, July 28, 2014

"doctrinae index disciplina est."

"In their discipline we have an index of their doctrine."

     Tertullian, De praescriptione haereticorum 43, as trans. Holmes (ANF 3).  See, for the Latin, p. 33 of the edition ed. Preuschen (2nd ed., Tübingen, 1910), which I'm not claiming is the best, necessarily; just handy.
An/The "index of (the) doctrine is (the) discipline." 
Holmes, again: 
from the very nature of their conduct, may be estimated the quality of their faith. In their discipline we have an index of their doctrine. They say that God is not to be feared; therefore all things are in their view free and unchecked. Where, however is God not feared, except where He is not? Where God is not, there truth also is not. Where there is no truth, then, naturally enough, there is also such a discipline as theirs. But where God is, there exists 'the fear of God, which is the beginning of wisdom.' Where the fear of God is, there is seriousness, an honourable and yet thoughtful diligence, as well as an anxious carefulness and a well-considered admission [to the sacred ministry] and a safely-guarded communion, and promotion after good service, and a scrupulous submission (to authority), and a devout attendance, and a modest gait, and a united church, and God in all things.
     I was put onto this by Geoffrey Wainwright ("Heresy then and now: reflection on a treatise of Tertullian," Pro ecclesia 13:2 (Spring 2004):  220), and for that reason haven't mastered the larger context.

Sunday, July 27, 2014

"use the good things that pass in such a way as to hold fast even now to those that ever endure."

O God, protector of those who hope in you,
without whom nothing has firm foundation, nothing is holy,
bestow in abundance your mercy upon us
and grant that, with you as our ruler and guide,
we may use the good things that pass
in such a way as to hold fast even now
to those that ever endure.
Through [etc.]

God our Father and protector,
without you nothing is holy,
nothing has value.
Guide us to everlasting life
by helping us to use wisely
the blessings you have given to the world.


     Collect for the Seventeenth Sunday in Ordinary Time, Roman missal, revised translation of 2010, followed by its immediate predecessor.  "has firm foundation" is without foundation, but undoubtedly better than "has value", as the Latin below ("validum") makes clear.  Not surprisingly, I prefer the Cranmerian rendition of "multiplica super nos" (way below):

Protector in te sperantium, Deus,
sine quo nihil est validum, nihil sanctum,
multiplica super nos misericordiam tuam
ut, te rectore, te duce, sic bonis transeuntibus nunc utamur,
ut iam possimus inhærere mansuris.
Per [etc.]

     But the Latin has been tampered with, according to the Rev. Bosco Peters in 1970.  Bruylants traces the following (which differs after "sic") to 169.1 of the Sacramentary of Gellone (Paris, Bibl. Nat. lat. 12048), an important Gelasian "written not earlier than 790" (ODCC, 3rd rev. edition of 2005).  I give it here exactly as reproduced in Corpus orationum 7, below:

Protector in te sperantium, deus,
sine quo nihil est validum, nihil sanctum,
multiplica super nos misericordiam tuam,
ut, te rectore, te duce,
sic transeamus per bona temporalia,
ut non amittamus aeterna.
Per [etc.]

. . .
and grant that, with you [as] ruler, you [as] guide,
we may pass through goods-temporal
in such a way as not to let slip/lose [goods-]eternal.

     To this, Corpus orationum 7 (at no. 4745) adds no. ____ of the Rheinau sacramentary (Sacramentarium Rhenaugiense (Zürich, Zentralbibl. Rh 30), ed. Haenggi & Schönherr (1970)), which, like the Sacramentary of Gellone, it, too, dates to the end of the 8th century (along with many additional later manuscripts of course, including at least one from the 8th-9th and a number from the 9th century).
     So this is of course what we have in the (more or less) Tridentine missal, as reproduced  (for the Sunday within the Octave of the Feast of the Sacred Heart) on p. 553 of (for example) The Missal in Latin and English, being the text of the Missale Romanum with English rubrics and a new translation (New York:  Sheed & Ward, 1949):

O God, the protector of those who trust in thee, without whom nothing is strong, nothing is holy, increase thy mercy towards us, so that with thee for our ruler and guide, we may so pass through the good things of this world as not to lose those of the world to come:  through [etc.]

     And in the 1962 Missal as well, as translated for the Baronius Press (The daily missal and liturgical manual, with Vespers for Sundays and Feasts, from the editio typica of the Roman missal and breviary, 1962) in 2009 (Third Sunday after Pentecost):

O God, the Protector of those who put their trust in Thee, without whom nothing is strong, nothing holy:  multiply upon us Thy mercy, that with Thee as our ruler and guide, we may so pass through things temporal, that we may not lose those which are eternal.  Through [etc.]

     Thus, we no longer pass through distracting goods-temporal, but use the good things that pass "in such a way as to hold fast even now to those that ever endure".  And to my ears, that sounds like a realistic improvement.  (Though it should be noted that that makes the Book of common prayer the conservative, given that the Anglican tradition has not messed with a reading at least thirteen centuries old.)
     Corpus orationum 7 suggests the following sources:  for l. 1, Ps 18 (17):31a, c; and for l. 3, Ps 36 (35):8a.
     Here it is in the Anglican and other traditions:

c. 1240/1260:  Sarum missal as ed. from the manuscripts (and especially Manchester, John Rylands, Crawford Lat. 24, which John Rylands itself dates to c. 1240/1260) by Legg, pp. 176-177; as ed. from the editions by Dickinson, col. 469.  I give the mid-13th-century reading from Legg below:

Pretector in te sperancium deus sine quo nichil est ualidum nichil sanctum.  multiplica super nos misericordiam tuam.  ut te rectore. te duce.  sic transeamus per bona temporalia.  ut non amittamus eterna.  per.

1549:  Book of common prayer (Church of England), as reproduced (for the Fourth Sunday after Trinity) on p. 143 of Everyman's library no. 448 (The first and second prayer books of Edward VI), and not double-checked against anything more authoritative:

God the protector of all that trust in thee, without whom nothyng is strong, nothing is holy; increase and multiply upon us thy mercye; that thou being our ruler and guyde, we may so passe through thinges temporall, that we fynally lose not the thinges eternall:  [etc.]

. . .

1979:  Book of common prayer (Episcopal Church), Proper 12:

O God, the protector of all that trust in thee, without whom nothing is strong, nothing is holy:  Increase and multiply upon us thy mercy, that, thou being our ruler and guide, we may so pass through the things temporal, that we finally lost not the things eternal; through [etc.]

O God, the protector of all who trust in you, without whom nothing is strong, nothing is holy:  Increase and multiply upon us your mercy; that, with you as our ruler and guide,
we may so pass through things temporal, that we lose not the things eternal; through [etc.]

1993:  Book of common worship (Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)), p. 364 (Seventeenth Sunday in Ordinary Time):

Eternal God,
protector of all who put their trust in you,
without whom nothing is strong, nothing is holy:
Fill us with your mercy and your grace,
that, with you to rule and guide,
we may so use the good things of this present life
that we do not neglect those of eternal worth.

2000:  Common worship (Church of England), p. 410 (Fourth Sunday after Trinity):

O God, the protector of all who trust in you,
without whom nothing is strong, nothing is holy:
increase and multiply upon us your mercy;
that with you as our ruler and guide
we may so pass through things temporal
that we lose not our hold on things eternal;
[etc.]

"Away then with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, 'Peace, peace,' and there is no peace! [Jer. 6:14] Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, 'Cross, cross,' and there is no cross!"

     Martin Luther, Theses 92 and 93 (of the 95 of 31 October 1517), LW 31:33 (17-33).  I was put onto this by Timothy J. Wengert, "Timothy J. Wengert, “Peace, peace . . . cross, cross’:  reflections on how Martin Luther relates the theology of the cross to suffering,” Theology today 59 (2002):  194 (190-205).

WA 1, 238:

17 [(fourth =92)] Valeant itaque omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi 'Pax pax', et non est pax.

18 [(fourth =93)] Bene agant omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi 'Crux crux', et non est crux.


     Wow.  Rupp & Drewery (Martin Luther, ed. E. G. Rupp & Benjamin Drewery, Documents of modern history (London:  Edward Arnold, 1970), 25) translate "Bene agant" ("Doing well") as "Good riddance"!

92 Away, then, with those prophets who say to Christ's people, 'Peace, peace!' when there is no peace. 
93 Good riddance to all of those prophets who say to Christ's people, 'The cross, the cross!' when there is no cross.
     Luther's 1518 Explanations of the Disputation concerning the value of indulgences (the power and efficacy of indulgences, or the ninety-five theses) are to be found at LW 31:77-252.  But Luther has only this to say of theses 92-95:  "Enough has been said previously about cross and punishments.  Rarely do you hear a sermon about it today" (252).

Friday, July 25, 2014

"from hosts consecrated at the same Mass"

"It is most desirable that the faithful, just as the priest himself is bound to do, receive the Lord’s Body from hosts consecrated at the same Mass and that, in the instances when it is permitted, they partake of the chalice (cf. no. 283), so that even by means of the signs Communion will stand out more clearly as a participation in the sacrifice actually being celebrated."

     General instruction of the Roman Missal (2002), par. 85.

"'So that even by means of the signs Communion may stand out more clearly as a participation in the Sacrifice being celebrated', it is preferable that the faithful be able to receive hosts consecrated in the same Mass."

     Redemptionis Sacramentum (2004), par. 89.

     I was put onto these passages by Robert F. Taft, "'Communion' from the tabernaclea liturgico-theological oxymoron," Worship 88, no 1 (January 2014):  16 (2-22).  But I don't see anything rising to the level of a flat-out reproof of the practice of "giving Communion from the tabernacle at Mass" in any of his examples (Mediator Dei (1947), pars. 118 and 121-122, which is inclusive of par. 3 of the mid-18th-century Certiores effecti).

Thursday, July 24, 2014

"The old roman Canon Missae has a weak pneumatology not because it is defective but because it is old, so old that it was composed before the divine personhood of the Holy Spirit became a problem to be resolved."

     Robert F. Taft, "'Communion' from the tabernaclea liturgico-theological oxymoron," Worship 88, no 1 (January 2014):  17 (2-22).

"from the hand of another"

     "In this pristine vision of the Eucharist, Holy Communion is not just the sacrament of personal communion with the Risen Lord of each of the baptized individually.  It is, rather, the sacrament of our communion with one another in the Body of that Risen Lord to form the one Mystical Body of Christ, a body at once ecclesial and eucharistic.  That this was the meaning of eucharistic koinonia in the early church has been shown beyond cavil.  The sense of this was so strong that in an earlier age none of the clergy concelebrating the Eucharist, not even the pope of Rome or the patriarch of Constantinople, served themselves Holy Communion.  Rather, they all received it from the hand of another, as I have shown in several studies.  This remained the general rule in most communion rites of East and West right up through the Middle Ages:  Holy Communion was not taken, not even by the higher clergy, but given and received.  For Communion is at once a ministry and a gift and a sharing.  As such, it was administered to each communicant by the hand of another as from Christ."

      Robert F. Taft, "'Communion' from the tabernaclea liturgico-theological oxymoron," Worship 88, no 1 (January 2014):  17 (2-22).

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

"that persevering love with which Saint Mary Magdalene clung resolutely to Christ her master"

May the holy reception of your mysteries, Lord,
instill in us that persevering love
with which Saint Mary Magdalene
clung resolutely to Christ her master.

Mysteriorum tuorum, Domine, sancta perceptio
perseverantem illum nobis amorem infundat,
quo beata Maria Magdalena
Christo magistro suo indesinenter adhæsit.

     Prayer after Communion, Feast of St. Mary Magdalene, 22 July, Roman missal.  In the Liturgy of the hours what appears is only the opening Collect, not this Post-Communion.
     This prayer does not appear with the ancient prayers in the main body of Corpus orationum.  But it is no. 2987 in the online 2004 Concordantia et indices volume of Sources of the Missale Parisiense of 1738, by Gerard O’Connor.  Better yet, Corpus orationum 13 refers from no. 683 (1616?) of the Missale Romanum of 1970/1975 to no. 2987 of the Missale Parisiense of 1706 ed. Noailles () and no. 2987 of the Missale Parisiense of 1685 ed. Harlay ().
     Yet on the other hand, it does not appear in the four Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve codices of the (?) Missale Parisiense in the Internet Archive dated 1481, 1489, 1490, and 1497.  There the Post-Communion is consistently "Sanctificet nos quaesumus domine et muniat intercedente beata Maria Magdalena", etc.
     So though a lot of work could still be done, I’m going to rest content for now with 1685.
Mysteriorum tuorum, Domine, sancta perceptio perseverantem illum nobis amorem infundat, quo beata Maria Magdalene tibi immobiliter adhæsit.
(There is a brief introduction to the Lyonese rite in the 2nd edition of the New Catholic encyclopedia, but I have not followed up on that.)
     Corpus orationum 13 traces this back to the "noli me tangere" ("Do not touch me") of John 20:17, read in the light of the "adherere" of Ps 73 (72):28 (from the Greek side, not the Hebrew): "it is good for me to adhere to my God".