Tuesday, August 6, 2013

Christian fabrications

INSCRIPTIONES FALSAE VEL ALIENAE:

CIL II 233* (p. 26*, under XII. CLVNIA (Clunia)); cf. the CIL Database:

diocletiano caes. aug. galerio in oriente adopt. superstitione christi ubiq. deleta et cultu deor. propagato




http://cil.bbaw.de/test06/bilder/datenbank/PH0002993.jpg
Note that this does not match CIL II 233* exactly.
My own highly inexpert transcription of the image associated therewith (to the right):

DIOCLETIANO CÆSAR
AVGUSTI GALER[IO]
IN ORIENTE ADPTATO
SVPERTITIONE CHRISTI
VBIQ DELETA
CVL[T]VS DEORUM PROPAGA

CIL II 234* (p. 26*, under XII. CLVNIA (Clunia)); cf. the CIL Database, which, like CIL in print, cross references CIL VI 3550*:

diocletian. iovius maximian. herculeus caess. augg. amplificato per orientem et occidentem imp. rom. et nomine christianor. deleto qui remp. evertebant



CIL II 236* (p. 26*, under XII (CLVNIA (Clunia)); cf. the CIL Database:

iiii. invicti. caesaris | matri. deum | sacello | in. durii. amnis. ancone | instructe | sub. magnae. pasiphaes. numine | privatum. dianae. sacrum | fordam. vaccam. albam | immolavere | ob. christianam | eorum. pia. cura | suppressam. exstinctamque | superstitionem | dioclec. | maximian. | galerius | et. constantius | imper. augggg. perpetui



I have also seen CIL II 234*/236* (?) cited as:
. . . extincto nomine christianorum. . . .

CIL VI 3550* (p. 245*, under Inscriptiones falsae reliquae, a subsection of pars V, Inscriptiones falsae urbi Romae attributae); cf. the CIL Database, which, like CIL in print, cross references CIL II 234*:

DIOCLETIANVS IOVIVS ET
MAXIMIAN HERCVLÆVS CÆS AVGG
AMPLIFICATO PER ORIENTEM
ET OCCIDENTEM
IMPER ROM
NOMINE CHRISTIANORVM
DELETO QVIREMP
EVERTERANT



I don't know how comprehensive it is, but presumably the fact that I haven't been able to get any of these to appear in Hispania Epigraphica is yet further confirmation of their inauthenticity.

There are some 63 hits on "ancient find spot" "Colonia Clunia Sulpicia" (="modern find spot" "Peñalba de Castro") in the Epigraphic Database Heidelberg at present, though none on "Literature" "CIL 2", and none on "christianor" (CIL II 234*) (though there are many on "christi").  But keep checking back as "The total number of records rises continually", and each record comes with a Bibliography.



Bibliography
(in progress; fill in with the references at CIL II, p. 26*)

1553:  Jacobus Strada, Epitome thesauri antiquitatum, p. 169, 12; p. 170, 1  Cf. the French of that same year:  Epitome du thrésor des antiquitez.  Source:  CIL II, p. 26* + p. IX, 14.  Unfortunately, I have yet to locate nos. 233* and 234* on these two pages.

1588/1607:  Cesare Baronius, Annales ecclesiastici, vol. 2 (1609), col. 830:
Dioclet. Iovivs. Maximi. Hercvlevs Caess. Avgg. amplificato per orientem et occid. impe. Rom. et nomine christianor. deleto qvi remp. evertebant
Diocletian. Caes. Avg. Gallerio in oriente adopt. svperstitione Christi vbiq. deleta cvltv deorvm propagato
1862:  Eduard von Wietersheim, Geschichte des Völkerwanderung, vol. 3 (1862), p. 481.  A defense?

1876:  Arthur James Mason, The persecution of Diocletian:  a historical essay (Cambridge:  Deighton Bell and Co., 1876), pp. 217-218 and 217n1.  Note that Mason says it was Westcott who first called his "attention to the spuriousness of these inscriptions".  Did Westcott say something about this in print somewhere?

1882:  Philip Schaff, History of the Christian church, new edition, thoroughly revised and enlarged, vol. 2 (New York:  Charles Scribner's Sons, 1884), p. 69-70 and 69n3.

1886:  "Monumental evidences of Christianity" (a review), Church quarterly review 22 (April-July 1886):  406-407 (381-409).

1987:  Pedro de Palol and José Vilella, Clunia II:  La epigrafía de Clunia, Excavaciones arcqueologicas en España (Madrid:  Ministerio de Cultura, 1987):  CIL index makes no reference.

1996:  Simon Corcoran, The empire of the Tetrarchs:  imperial pronouncements and government, AD 284-324 (Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1996):  CIL index makes no reference.

2001:  Wolfgang Kuhoff, Diokletian und die Epoche der Tetrarchie:  Das römische Reich zwischen Krisenbewältigung und Neuaufbau (284-313 n. Chr.) (Frankfurt am Main:  Peter Lang, 2001).  CIL index makes no reference.

2012:  G. González Germain, “CIL II 815:  Una inscripción falsa (más) de Cáparra,” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 183 (2012):  304n46:  “A Clunia se attribuyen, como mínimo, tres epígrafes falsos (CIL II 233*-[2]35*)”.

     With thanks to ATLA colleague Eric Benoy and his Provost for the question that prompted this research.

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